Arch Linux: pacman – The Reference Guide

Quick Brief:
Pacman is used as a package manager on Arch Linux. It was created to be user friendly by combining a binary package with a build system. Pacman makes it easy to manager packages from offical repositories to personal builds. Pacman also keeps the system up to date by syncing the package lists with the master server. This allows the user to install packages with a simple command.
Recommended flags:
-Syu            Update all package databases and upgrade installed packages
-Syy            Force update package database even if recently updated
-Syyuw     Download packages but choose to manually download later
-Rns            Removes pkg, dependencies and system config files
-Qdt           Lists unneeded dependencies (orphans)
-Q | wc -l  Tells how many packages you have
Syncing flags:
-S          Syncing repositories & databases
-y          Update package database (mirrors)
-u         Upgrade installed packages
-c          Remove all packages from cache (older versions after upgrading)
-s          Search remote repositories
Removing flags:
-R           Removes packages (recommended to not run alone)

Listing flags:
-Q      Lists all packages installed
-s       Search local repository
-e       List only programs you installed explicit (not including dependencies)
-q      Gets rid of details/version (lists only name of package)
-n      Lists packages installed from main repository
-m     Lists packages installed from AUR